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The quantitative approach is admirable, but Buffon's assumptions are flawed. Silicate minerals have lower heat conductivity than steels and are better insulators leading to slower cooling rates.

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The discovery gave scientists a tool for dating rocks that contain radioactive elements.Many elements have naturally occurring isotopes, varieties of the element that have different numbers of neutrons in the nucleus.Mountains, erosion, and variations in climate were considered to be punishment for the sins committed by humanity.Buffon's Iron Sphere Experiments- On the basis of iron sphere cooling experiments, Frenchman Georges de Buffon estimated that the Earth would have needed 75,000 years to cool to its present temperature.He calculated the modern rate of salt delivery to the oceans, and suggested that the present salinity of ocean water would take at least 100 million years to develop.

In the 1860's, English physicist Lord Kelvin disagreed with Charles Lyells proposition that the earth behaves in a uniform, unchanging manner.Radiometric dating--the process of determining the age of rocks from the decay of their radioactive elements--has been in widespread use for over half a century.There are over forty such techniques, each using a different radioactive element or a different way of measuring them.Over time, radioactive isotopes change into stable isotopes by a process known as radioactive decay.Some radioactive parent isotopes decay almost instantaneously into their stable daughter isotopes; others take billions of years. Wiens has a Ph D in Physics, with a minor in Geology.